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According to British sinologist Herbert Allen Giles — , that name was "taken from that of [Huangdi's] hereditary principality".
Throughout most of Chinese history, the Yellow Emperor and the other ancient sages were considered to be historical figures.
Also in the s, French scholars Henri Maspero and Marcel Granet published critical studies of China's accounts of high antiquity.
Most scholars now agree that the Yellow Emperor originated as a god who was later represented as a historical person. Chang sees Huangdi and other cultural heroes as "ancient religious figures" who were " euhemerized " in the late Warring States and Han periods.
The origin of Huangdi's mythology is unclear, but historians have formulated several hypotheses about it. Yang Kuan , a member of the Doubting Antiquity School s—40s , argued that the Yellow Emperor was derived from Shangdi , the highest god of the Shang dynasty.
Also disagreeing with Yang Kuan's hypothesis, Sarah Allan finds it unlikely that such a popular myth as the Yellow Emperor's could have come from a taboo character.
Given that the earliest extant mention of the Yellow Emperor was on a fourth-century BCE Chinese bronze inscription claiming that he was the ancestor of the royal house of the state of Qi , Lothar von Falkenhausen speculates that Huangdi was invented as an ancestral figure as part of a strategy to claim that all ruling clans in the " Zhou dynasty culture sphere" shared common ancestry.
Explicit accounts of the Yellow Emperor started to appear in Chinese texts the Warring States period. Harvard University historian Michael Puett writes that the Qi bronze inscription was one of several references to the Yellow Emperor in the fourth and third centuries BCE within accounts of the creation of the state.
Yates hypothesizes that Huang—Lao originated in that region. The cult of Huangdi became very popular during the Warring States period 5th century— BCE , a period of intense competition between rival states which ended with the unification of the realm by the state of Qin.
The figure of Huangdi had appeared sporadically in Warring States texts. Sima Qian 's Shiji or Records of the Grand Historian , completed around 94 BCE was the first work to turn these fragments of myths into a systematic and consistent narrative of the Yellow Emperor's "career".
The Shiji begins its chronological account of Chinese history with the life of Huangdi, whom it presents as a sage sovereign from antiquity.
His first wife Leizu of Xiling bore him two sons. When the Yellow Emperor died, he was succeeded by Changyi's son, Zhuanxu.
The chronological tables found in chapters 13 of the Shiji represent all past rulers — legendary ones such as Yao and Shun, the first ancestors of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties, as well as the founders of the main ruling houses in the Zhou sphere — as descendants of Huangdi, giving the impression that Chinese history was the history of one large family.
The Yellow Emperor was credited with an enormous number of cultural legacies and esoteric teachings. While Taoism is often regarded in the West as arising from Laozi , Chinese Taoists claim the Yellow Emperor formulated many of their precepts.
In the second century CE, Huangdi's role as a deity was diminished because of the rise of a deified Laozi. The Yellow Emperor became a powerful national symbol in the last decade of the Qing dynasty — and remained dominant in Chinese nationalist discourse throughout the Republican period — Starting in , radical publications started using the projected date of his birth as the first year of the Chinese calendar.
The Yellow Emperor continued to be revered after the Xinhai Revolution of , which overthrew the Qing dynasty. In , for instance, banknotes carrying Huangdi's effigy were issued by the new Republican government.
Directed by Bai Ke — , a former assistant of Yuan Muzhi , it was a propaganda effort to convince speakers of Taiyu that they were linked to mainland people by common blood.
Gay studies researcher Louis Crompton    has cited Ji Yun 's report in his popular Notes from the Yuewei Hermitage , that some claimed the Yellow Emperor was the first Chinese to take male bedmates, a claim that Ji Yun dismissed.
As with any myth, there are numerous versions of Huangdi's story, emphasizing different themes and interpreting the main character's significance in different ways.
Early on, he lived with his tribe near the Ji River — Edwin Pulleyblank states that "there seems to be no record of a Ji River outside the myth"  — and later migrated to Zhuolu in modern-day Hebei.
He then became a farmer and tamed six different special beasts: Huangdi is sometimes said to have been the fruit of extraordinary birth , as his mother Fubao conceived him as she was aroused, while walking in the country, by a lightning bolt from the Big Dipper.
She delivered her son on the mount of Shou Longevity or mount Xuanyuan, after which he was named. In traditional Chinese accounts, the Yellow Emperor is credited with improving the livelihood of the nomadic hunters of his tribe.
He teaches them how to build shelters, tame wild animals, and grow the Five Grains , although other accounts credit Shennong with the last.
He invents carts, boats, and clothing. In traditional accounts, he also goads the historian Cangjie into creating the first Chinese character writing system, the Oracle bone script , and his principal wife Leizu invents sericulture and teaches his people how to weave silk and dye clothes.
At one point in his reign the Yellow Emperor allegedly visited the mythical East sea and met a talking beast called the Bai Ze who taught him the knowledge of all supernatural creatures.
The Yellow Emperor and the Yan Emperor were both leaders of a tribe or a combination of two tribes near the Yellow River.
The Yan Emperor hailed from a different area around the Jiang River , which a geographical work called the Shuijingzhu identified as a stream near Qishan in what was the Zhou homeland before they defeated the Shang.
He flees to Zhuolu and begs the Yellow Emperor for help. During the ensuing Battle of Zhuolu the Yellow Emperor employs his tamed animals and Chi You darkens the sky by breathing out a thick fog.
This leads the emperor to develop the south-pointing chariot , which he uses to lead his army out of the miasma. Yearly sacrifices are held at the temple.
The emperors of Chinese dynasties venerated the Yellow Emperor's mausoleum, and most would dispatch a closely trusted high-ranked official, bearing an imperial monument written by the emperor himself, to conduct the ceremonies.
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Retrieved from " https: Archived copy as title Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from January Articles with permanently dead external links Coordinates on Wikidata Use dmy dates from DecemberNovember um Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Wenn Sie mehr erfahren oder Ihre Zustimmung gegenüber allen oder einzelnen Cookies zurückziehen möchten, ziehen Sie bitte die Cookie-Richtlinien zurate. Bonus ohne Einzahlung Royal Panda Casino. Photinia-Hecke 'Red Robin' 1 Pflanze. Kenne Dein Limit, wenn Du Glücksspiel betreibst. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Benachrichtigen Sie mich bitte, wenn der Artikel wieder lieferbar ist. Esqueleto Explosivo Spielautomat Erfahrungen. Er gehört zu den wichtigsten Gestalten der chinesischen Mythologie.